The Germans also began to be hampered by the scorched-earth policy adopted by the retreating Soviets. Now all this changed. When Barbarossa took office, Henry had laid claim to Bavaria, the domain of the margrave Henry II Jasomirgott of Austria. The next day, the New York Times … Conditions in the devastated city deteriorated, and the Russian people still fought on. Nevertheless, by mid-July the Germans had advanced more than 400 miles (640 km) and were only 200 miles (320 km) from Moscow. Especially in the north, the Wehrmacht, or German Army, made deep advances in the direction of Leningrad (present day St. Petersburg) and Moscow. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The discussion of Godfrey of Viterbo’s depiction of William of Montferrat (p. 381) would certainly have been somewhat different, had Godfrey’s earlier imprisonment by William’s son Conrad been taken into account. In Italy, Frederick had entered into a world that he did not entirely understand. Barbarossa had attempted to hold the increasing power of the princes in check. In 1158 Frederick claimed supremecy of Rome and a year later waged war on … By going to war with the Soviet Union in 1941 after having already declared war on Britain, Hitler and the German military was fighting a two-front war which it could never win. But the Germans found themselves stalled as they had outrun their own supply lines. Still, English-speaking readers have had to wait a long time for a biography of this Holy Roman Emperor. Entire steel and munitions plants in the westernmost portions of the U.S.S.R. were dismantled and shipped by rail to the east, where they were put back into production. He appears as a ruler deeply rooted in the aristocratic culture of his time, but who would also be ruthless and cruel when it served him. It is not completely certain that Duke Henry’s refusal of aid to Frederick in 1176 was the sole cause of his downfall. It has long been speculated that Stalin was intending to attack Germany at some point. The code name, Operation Barbarossa, was a tribute to Frederick I, a German king crowned Holy Roman Emperor in the 12th century. A number to ponder and learn from. The son of Duke Frederick II of Swabia, Frederick I was the nephew of Emperor Conrad III of the Hohenstaufen family. By 1152 he had found a solution for the area of Burgundy, which also belonged to the empire. The German drive toward Moscow seemed unstoppable. Reinforced by troops brought in from Central Asia, the Red Army pushed the Germans back 20 to 40 miles with the first assaults. The Nazi war machine had been stopped short of Moscow, and, a year later, at Stalingrad. The United States and Britain began to supply the Soviet Union with war material, and the fighting resolve of the Russian people helped build morale in the allied nations. The western nations would ally with Stalin, and Hitler would be fighting on two fronts for the rest of the war. Richard and his army continued to march towards Jaffa, but his cavalry were frequently attacked by skilful archers who would fire a swarm of arrows before making a rapid retreat. This territory was composed of castles, cities, landholdings, ministerial seats, and single rights that were more or less thickly scattered from Swabia to Thuringia. It was in effect the largest and most powerful invasion force in human history. It is, of course, regrettable that so many scholars of the medieval Empire do not read Italian, but it is surprising that so little reference is made even to Italian scholarship that has been translated into English (e.g. Moreover, nationalistic zealots hailed this ruler as the heroic epitome of a German man. 3 4 5. The failure of German troops to defeat Soviet forces in the campaign signaled a crucial turning point in the war. Freed states, for example (p. 294), that it was Rainald of Dassel, the archbishop of Cologne (1159–67) and driving force behind Frederick Barbarossa’s break with Pope Alexander III, who turned the Three Magi into Three Kings. All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Operation Barbarossa was named after Frederick Barbarossa, the medieval Holy Roman Emperor. Freed discusses Frederick’s conflict with Henry the Lion and, finally, the Third Crusade and the emperor’s death. Following the fall of Acre, Duke Leopold of Austria placed his banner beside the flags of Richard and Philip. Soviet Casualties approximated 27 million during World War 2, compare that to the total loss of all involved with World War 2 as 55 million. In addition to troops, Barbarossa used about 600,000 motor vehicles and 750,000 horses. Despite enormous losses in territory, men and machinery, the Soviets had fought on, and survived. By mid-July, moreover, a series of rainstorms were turning the sandy Russian roads into clogging mud, over which the wheeled vehicles of the German transport behind the tanks could make only very slow progress. The assault began with a massive air raid by the Luftwaffe, which reduced much of the city to rubble. Apparently his manifold breach of the peace of the land caused the Emperor to accuse him, to conquer Lübeck, and, in 1180, through a council of the princes in Gelnhausen, to depose him. Another factor in the Germans’ calculations was purely political, though no less mistaken; they believed that within three to six months of their invasion, the Soviet regime would collapse from lack of domestic support. 21) for a start date of the 15th of May, 1941, but this planned start would not be met, and instead the invasion began on the 22nd of June, 1941. The Red Army accelerated recruitment, and the Soviet war industries stepped up production. Following the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states and of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina in June 1940, which put Soviet forces in proximity to the Romanian oil fields on which Germany depended, Hitler’s long-standing interest in overthrowing the Soviet regime was heightened. By the end of January 1942, the situation had stabilized and German resistance held against the Russian onslaught. Before his departure he returned the former possessions of the Countess Mathilde of Tuscany, a part of the papal state, to the Pope. As a result of Henry the Lion’s trial, the feudal system was made a still stronger basis of the imperial constitution. Men were pressed into service, often with hardly any weapons, while women were tasked with digging defensive trenches. The effects of the miscalculations were increased because much of August was wasted while Hitler and his advisers were having long arguments as to what course they should follow after their initial victories. Yet the Italian kingdom was divided between an equally tight network of interests and loyalties, and that not only among the Italian nobility. In time the Russian troops advanced as far as 200 miles into territory held by the Germans. Even taking the cross is not seen as inspired by piety, but rather as an ‘unintended acknowledgement of his diminished status’ (p. 452). For specialists of Barbarossa’s reign, particularly in Germany, the book does not offer many new interpretations, but to wish for more detail in a book of 700 pages may seem improper.