The Suez Crisis is a notable example where the General Assembly met in an emergency meeting to keep peace. The joint offensive saw the Egyptian forces lose complete control of the canal area and it would seem that the canal would be lost, but Nasser rallied his country’s army and fought on. The Soviet Union eager to gain influence in the middle east supplied arms and ammunition to the Egyptian army. Learn how your comment data is processed. In 1954, Nasser sponsored raids into Israel triggering series of reprisal operations. Required fields are marked *. Resultantly, peace was restored along the border between Israel and Egypt where scattered fighting had been the rule. Israeli recorded 231 deaths and 900 injuries while Egyptian casualties included 100-3000 deaths and 4000 injuries. The Egyptian forces mounted a spirited defense but were overpowered on the first day reporting a casualty of 260. The crisis may also have hastened decolonisation, as many of the remaining British and French colonies gained independence over the next few years. The significance of this was not lost on many contemporary historians. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The three countries attained some military objectives, but the Suez Canal was closed for six months from October 1956 to March 1957 with the UN forming UNEF Peacekeepers to monitor the Egyptian-Israeli border. It pressured Israel, Great Britain and France to stop fighting and withdraw their forces from Egypt. The 193-kilometre long canal separated Egypt from the Sinai Peninsula and Africa from Asia. For no nation wants to commit a deed that will be looked upon with disapproval by most of the other nations of the world. As the seat of empires of the past, Britain had agreed to the withdrawal of its army by a mere threat of an economic sanction by one of its former colonies. As this chapter points out, the confrontation at Suez had the opposite effect to that intended by the planners of the invasion. Why does America want to back out of Open Skies Treaty? In the eyes of the world, the crisis and its aftermath signalled the end of Britain and France as superpowers as their influence weakened with the United States and the Soviet Union taking on a more active role in affairs. The Suez Crisis was a rude wake-up call. Suez Canal links the Mediterranean with the red Sea. But he did warn that should the British, French and the Israelis not withdraw from the Suez Canal, his government would impose economic sanctions on all three. There was a veritable fear that the fighting could cause a larger war. An important moment in post-war British history, ‘Suez’ (as it has become known) still conjures up powerful images of national decline, ministerial incompetence and global humiliation six decades later. The United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was an armed group dispatched to the area to supervise the end of hostilities and the withdrawal of the three occupying forces. This worked and the British and French forces withdrew by December 1956 while the side of the canal towards the Sinai would be held by the Israelis until March 1957. Ownership soon passed to the British. Your email address will not be published. The Suez Crisis forged an alliance between France, Britain, and Israel, who all despised Nasser. France was furious at Egypt’s support of Algerian rebels who were fighting against French colonial authority. The Israeli military planning for the operation focused on capturing the Sharm el-Sheikh town which would enable them to have access to the Red Sea. By John Misachi on April 25 2017 in Politics. Your email address will not be published. Before the construction of the canal, ships traversing from Asia to Europe and vice-versa had to circumnavigate around the Cape of Good Hope in the southern tip of Africa to reach either continent. Despite Nasser promising fair compensation to the former owners of the canal, the British and the French made a plan with the Israelis to take back the canal from Egyptian control. Nasser’s action also infuriated the French government who also decided on the military intervention. Under the supervision of French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps, the Suez Canal opened in 1869, about ten years of construction. ‘Nasserism’ was elevated to the status of an ideology throughout the Arab world. The General Assembly was called into emergency session. British recorded 16 deaths and 96 wounded while French casualties included ten dead and 33 wounded. Nasser emerged from the Suez crisis as the pre-eminent leader of Arab nationalism. They decided that they required a permanent military presence in Egypt to guard it. He went as far as threatening to rain nuclear missiles on Western Europe should the Israeli-French-British force not withdraw in time, previous years history questions for UPSC Mains. Polity Bharat Ka Samvidhan: Ek Parichaya: Ek Parichaya (Hindi), Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization : Salient Features, The First Carnatic War (1746-48) – Causes and Results, Lord Curzon : Reforms and the administrative measures, Lord Ripon (1880-1884) – A well-meaning Governor-General, Itolizumab (rDNA origin) – A Monoclonal Antibody | UPSC, Know about Hagia Sophia Controversy | UPSC, Administration of Lord Lytton (1876-1880). The canal became a source of growing tension in Anglo-Egyptian relation. The casualty is estimated to be over 3000 with Egypt reporting the highest number. Three days later British and French troops landed at the northern end of the Suez Canal. , visit the linked article. The war would intensify in the next five days with France also taking part in the war. The 193-kilometre long canal separated Egypt from the Sinai Peninsula and Africa from Asia. General Assembly played a big role to resolve the issue. It meets regularly on an annual basis for a period of about three months. Within a few days, the conflict had been stopped and the first UNEF troops arrived to separate the two sides. Suez Canal runs through Egypt but is utilized by ships of many nations which would otherwise have to cruise all the way around Africa. After the Second World War, the British consolidated and strengthened its position at the Suez. All member countries are represented in the General Assembly. Why was the Suez Canal important? The UN made this peace with an emergency force of some 3,000 to 5,000 men only. The crisis ended when the invaders withdrew under pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Nations. In this article, we are taking the example of Suez Canal Crisis where an important organ of UN i.e. He went as far as threatening to rain nuclear missiles on Western Europe should the Israeli-French-British force not withdraw in time. The Suez Canal Crisis is a striking illustration of what the United Nations can do to keep peace. It was managed and operated by the Universal Company of the Suez Maritime Canal with the surrounding area remaining an Egyptian territory. Nevertheless, the offensive was successful with Port Said and Port Fuad falling to the British and French forces while the Sinai peninsula was effectively under Israeli control. It was constructed by the French in the 1860s. The 1956 Suez Crisis, when Britain along with France and Israel invaded Egypt to recover control of the Suez Canal, was arguably one of the most significant episodes in post-1945 British history.It’s outcome highlighted Britain’s declining status and confirmed it as a ‘second tier’ world power. The British decided on military intervention as a means or regaining control of the canal. The delay in the offensive had given the Soviet Union, allies of the Egyptians, time to respond. As we have already seen in our previous article how the United Nations plays important role in solving international issues. The response of the United States was measured. The Soviet Union eager to gain influence in the middle east supplied arms and ammunition to the Egyptian army. For more preparation materials they can refer to the links given in the table below: Your email address will not be published. , as many of the remaining British and French colonies gained independence over the next few years. Clip: Sir Anthony, now Prime Minister, broadcasts a televised address about the Suez Crisis in 1956. The Suez Crisis Unfolds. The political pressure and threats of economic sanctions forced the British to call the ceasefire on November 6, 1956. The Suez Crisis marked the first use of a United Nations peacekeeping force. The Suez Crisis was an invasion of Egypt by Israel, Britain and France with the objective of regaining control of the Suez Canal that had been nationalized by the Egyptian president, Gamal Abdel Nasser. The move to nationalize the canal naturally antagonised the French and the British. Short Notes on Civil Rebellions and Peasant Revolts. Suez Crisis: UPSC Notes – Download PDF Here. Along with fighting for the economic value, each country had a personal score to settle with Egypt, specifically with Nasser. Suez Canal links the Mediterranean with the red Sea. For more preparation materials they can refer to the links given in the table below: GS 1 Structure, Strategy and Syllabus for UPSC Mains, GS 2 Structure, Strategy and Syllabus for UPSC Mains, GS 3 Structure, Strategy and Syllabus for UPSC Mains, GS 4 Structure Strategy and Syllabus for UPSC Mains. Israel, while it did not gain the right to utilize the canal, was once again granted rights to ship goods along the Straits of Tiran. The canal was declared a neutral zone in 1888 during the Convention of Constantinople. The intervention stimulated radical nationalism. On October 30, 1956, the Egyptian Navy dispatched its warship to Haifa. Gaza Strip was also a target since it was the training ground for the Fedayeen group. It was constructed by the French in the 1860s. Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev threw in his weight at a United Nations Security Council meeting convened to mitigate the crisis. However, the ship was overpowered by the Israeli forces damaging the ship’s engine. The canal enhanced trade between countries and assisted the European colonial powers to have control of their colonies. President Dwight Eisenhower censured the soviets for their reckless talk of nuclear conflict. Understanding The Relationship Between Hong Kong And China, Presidents Who Did The Most To Improve Black Rights. What Were the Main Causes of World War II? French relations with the United States would be strained through the next few decades and they would find even less support when it came to maintaining their colonies in Africa and Asia. A Brief Note on Chinese Dynasties – Timeline, Everything related to the League of Nations : Its Role and Failure, Role of Napoleon Bonaparte in French History and His Downfall, Important Events, Causes and Results of World War I, मध्यकालीन इतिहास के लिए :–मध्यकालीन भारत: रणनीति, समाज और संस्कृति, प्राचीन एवं पूर्व मध्यकालीन भारतीय इतिहास, Lucent’S Samanya Vigyan (General Science In Hindi), भारत की राजव्यवस्था – By M. Laxmi Kanth. The very word ‘Suez’ became a codeword for the British, warning of hubris and embarrassment. On October 31, the British forces joined the war at the northern Red Sea. Sansar LochanJuly 2, 2017History of the WorldLeave a Comment. Which Countries Were First To Elect Women Leaders? Israel attacked first on October 29, 1956. Suez Canal Crisis. © Copyright by Sansar Lochan, India | All Rights Reserved.