He is buried in St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague. Already Bohemian king (from September 1562) and king of the Romans, or successor-designate to the empire (from November 1562), Maximilian became Hungarian king in 1563 and succeeded to the imperial throne in 1564. Unlike Maximilian, Mary was a strict Catholic and committed to Habsburg Spain. On his deathbed he refused to receive the last sacraments of the Church. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. His religious views and sentiments became a matter of concern causing sufficient scandal during the latter half of the 1550s. He proposed that his consent should be necessary before any soldiers for foreign service were recruited in the empire; but the estates were unwilling to strengthen the imperial authority, the Protestant princes regarded the suggestion as an attempt to prevent them from assisting their co-religionists in France and the Netherlands, and nothing was done in this direction, although some assistance was voted for the defense of Austria. Maximilian was the born on July 31, 1527, in Vienna, Austria, to Habsburg archduke, Ferdinand I, and Jagiellonian princess Anne of Bohemia and Hungary. His efforts to gain the right of marriage for priests failed, largely because of the opposition of Spain. The religious views of the king of Bohemia, as Maximilian had been called since his recognition as the future ruler of that country in 1549, had always been somewhat uncertain, and he had probably learned something of Lutheranism in his youth; but his amicable relations with several Protestant princes, which began about the time of the discussion over the succession, were probably due more to political than to religious considerations. Was Napoleon Bonaparte nicknamed the Sun King? Maximilian’s foremost policy as the King and Holy Roman Emperor was to make a thorough reform of the Catholic Church. However, objection was raised as Ferdinand had already been designated as the next occupant of the imperial throne. Kings of Germany family tree. Archduchess Marie of Austria (19 February 1564 – 26 March 1564). Meanwhile the relations between Maximilian and Philip of Spain had improved; and the emperor's increasingly cautious and moderate attitude in religious matters was doubtless because the death of Philip's son, Don Carlos, had opened the way for the succession of Maximilian, or of one of his sons, to the Spanish throne. He fought an unsuccessful campaign against the Turks which resulted in an arrangement in 1568 according to which he had to continue to pay tribute to the sultan. A nun. view all 27 Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor's Timeline However, despite this, the two shared a strong bond of love. Fears were freely expressed that he would definitely leave the Catholic Church, and when Ferdinand became emperor in 1558 he was prepared to assure Pope Paul IV that his son should not succeed him if he took this step. Born in Vienna, he was a son of his predecessor Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547). Charles V wished his son Philip (afterwards king of Spain) to succeed him as emperor, but his brother Ferdinand, who had already been designated as the next occupant of the imperial throne, and Maximilian objected to this proposal. Maximilian II was a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576) was king of Bohemia and king of the Romans (king of Germany) from 1562, king of Hungary and Croatia from 1563, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from 1564 until his death. Who Is The Greatest Female Warrior In History? He became the first King of the Romans not to be crowned in Aachen. Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576) was king of Bohemia and king of the Romans (king of Germany) from 1562, king of Hungary and Croatia from 1563, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from 1564 until his death. Archduke Ferdinand of Austria (28 March 1551 – 25 June 1552). Corrections? He was unable, however, to obtain the consent of Pope Pius IV to the marriage of the clergy, and in 1568 the concession of communion in both kinds to the laity was withdrawn. However, the proposal was overruled as German princes believed it to be an attempt to prevent them from assisting coreligionists abroad. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Emperors, Conquerors, and Men of War: Fact or Fiction? Married. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In the Netherlands, Maximilian advised compromise between Catholics and Protestants but was again frustrated by Spanish intransigence. As such, despite his inner wish, he remained loyal to Catholic faith and attended mass. Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Luxemburg, Württemberg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Prince of Swabia, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, Moravia, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Princely Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Landgrave of Alsace, Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone and Salins, etc. This was after he assured of his loyalty towards the Catholic faith. Archduke Frederick of Austria (21 June 1562 – 16 January 1563). Out of his nine sons and six daughters, two of his sons served as Holy Roman Emperors. Yet he proved his personal liberalism by granting freedom of worship to the Protestant nobility of Austria (1568), promising to respect religious liberty in Bohemia (1575), and working for the reform of the Roman Catholic church. During his term of reign, he faced the ongoing Ottoman-Habsburg wars. Maximilian's policies of religious neutrality and peace in the Empire afforded its Roman Catholics and Protestants a breathing-space after the first struggles of the Reformation. Having in September 1548 married his cousin Maria, daughter of Charles V, he acted as the emperor's representative in Spain from 1548 to 1550, returning to Germany in December 1550 in order to take part in the discussion over the imperial succession. Archduke Wenceslaus of Austria (9 March 1561 – 22 September 1578). He also took the usual oath to protect the Church, and his election was afterwards confirmed by the papacy. On 13 September 1548, Maximilian married his first cousin Maria of Spain, daughter of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Isabella of Portugal. Anne was a daughter of King Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his wife Anne de Foix. He was educated in Italy by humanist scholars. Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria (5 June 1554 – 22 January 1592). He successfully preserved the freedom of the Protestant nobility to worship. He allowed religious freedom to Lutheran nobles and knights in Austria but refused to invest Protestant administrators of bishoprics with their imperial fiefs, thus disappointing the hopes of Germany’s Protestant princes. The new emperor had already shown that he believed in the necessity for a thorough reform of the Church. Maximilian was married to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V’s daughter, Mary of Spain on September 13, 1548.  He was a member of the House of Habsburg. His refusal to invest Protestant administrators of bishoprics with their imperial fiefs disappointed the hopes of Germany’s Protestant princes. Otto I The Magdeburger Reiter: a tinted sandstone equestrian monument, c. 1240, traditionally intended as a portrait of Otto I (detail), Magdeburg … Wikipedia, We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Upon his father’s death in 1564, he succeeded his father and served as the King of Hungary and Croatia. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Rudolf, who had been chosen king of the Romans in October 1575. On his part Maximilian granted religious liberty to the Lutheran nobles and knights in Austria, and refused to allow the publication of the decrees of the council of Trent. Yet, although he preserved the right of his subjects to worship according to their beliefs, he succeeded in few of his political aims.