Check out our classroom resources organized by each article or amendment, and by key constitutional questions. However, the court acknowledged that prison officials contain the duty to safeguard the inmates, prison employees, and the public at large. When combined with the penumbras of the 9th Amendment, the 1st, 3rd, and 4th Amendments create the right to privacy, especially in marital relations, which then falls under the liberty interest of the 14th Amendment. amendment XIV. The Eighth Amendment protects the US citizens against excessive bail, excessive fines, and infliction to unusual or cruel punishment. Four years after Poe v. Ullman, the 1879 statute met its match in Griswold v. Connecticut. This compromise attempted to resolve the differences between the Northern and Southern states concerning their government. The case examined what Justice Stewart described as Connecticut’s “uncommonly silly law.” Griswold at 527. Estelle Griswold, Executive Director of the Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut, and Dr. C. Lee Buxton, another administrator and consultant, were arrested in 1961 for violating the Connecticut statute prohibiting birth control between married couples and another statute. That Justice Douglas chose to argue through metaphor and analogy is nothing new in the study of jurisprudence and legal writing. Each state also has a constitution. Griswold; Hall at 408. The male officers were said to search the female prisoners thoroughly by running their hands over their clothed body from the neck downwards up to the legs. When combined with the penumbras of the 9th Amendment, the 1st, 3rd, and 4th Amendments create the right to privacy, especially in marital relations, which then falls under the liberty interest of the 14th Amendment. Fourteenth Amendment, amendment (1868) to the Constitution of the United States that granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to African Americans and slaves who had been emancipated after the American Civil War, including them under the umbrella phrase “all persons born or naturalized in the United States.” In all, the amendment comprises five sections, four of which began in 1866 as separate proposals that stalled in legislative process and were later amalgamated, along with a fifth enforcement section, into a single amendment. Get the National Constitution Center’s weekly roundup of constitutional news and debate. Additional rights interpreted as coming under the Due Process Clause included the “propriety of laws that touch economic problems, business affairs, or social conditions” as well as the intimate relationship between married couples.